Thyroid Disorders You Must be Aware of

Problems that arise due to the dysfunctioning of the thyroid glands are collectively known as ‘Thyroid Diseases’. The thyroid gland, which envelops the frontal portion of the windpipe just below Adam’s apple, is a unique part of the endocrine system that controls our bodies metabolism, growth and temperature. It is also responsible for coordinating several of our bodily functions by producing crucial hormones like thyroxine or ‘T4’. 

When these thyroid glands start to dysfunction, the hormone production process gets disrupted further affecting the bodily activities which depend on it. In cases where the hormone production plummets are known as ‘Hypothyroidism’ and when it surges, it is known as ‘Hyperthyroidism’.

Both these states are caused due to different thyroid diseases, of which some are potentially terminal. Following are some of the common and worrisome thyroid problems you must know about:

Hashimoto’s disease:

Also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s disease is more common in middle-aged women than men. Here, the immune system becomes hostile towards the thyroid hormones causing a rapid decrease in the hormone production. It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. 

The symptoms of Hashimoto’s disease are quite similar to several other disorders and hence are difficult to diagnose. However, some symptoms are more likely to show, such as enlarged thyroid glands, fatigue, constipation, weight gain, weak hair, heavy and irregular menstruation, and intolerance to cold.

Even though there is no known cure for Hashimoto’s disease, doctors may suggest using hormone-replacing medications to increase hormone levels and reduce TSH levels in the body. 

Grave’s Disease:

Discovered 150 years ago, Grave’s disease is an autoimmune disorder which causes the thyroid glands to overproduce hormones responsible for maintaining metabolism. 

It is a hereditary disorder which more often affects women. It can also be caused due to smoking, pregnancy or anxiety. 

This sudden surge of hormones speeds up the bodily activities giving rise to problems like fatigue, sleep deprivation, hand tremors, increased or irregular heartbeat, excessive sweating, diarrhoea, altered menstrual cycle and goitre.

Treating Greave’s disease requires a combination of several treatments that cure individual symptoms, such as:

  • Beta-blockers for controlling heart rate and sweating
  • Radioactive iodine for treating thyroid glands
  • Antithyroid medications for controlling hormone growth
  • As the last resort, surgery for removing the glands

Thyroid Nodules:

  • Thyroid nodules are either solid or cystic mass which grows over or within the thyroid glands. 
  • They are mostly caused due to iodine deficiency or as a symptom of Hashimoto’s disease. 
  • They stay benign in most cases and show symptoms similar to those of goitre if they grow large enough.
  • If the nodules start producing excessive hormones, the symptoms may grow and lead to hyperthyroidism. However, if they are associated with Hashimoto’s disease, they can lead to hypothyroidism.
  • Benign nodules don’t necessarily require any treatment whereas tumorous nodules will require a surgical removal procedure for treatment.


  • When one’s diet lacks iodine intake, the thyroid glands tend to enlarge, a condition known as goitre. Although there are other causes of goitre, 90% of the cases are due to iodine deficiency.
  • Goitre, like almost all thyroid diseases, commonly affects middle-aged women in a harmless way. 
  • After the glands have overgrown, it starts causing problems like swelling, difficulty in breathing or swallowing, and coughing or wheezing.
  • Goitre is also associated with other thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or Greave’s disease.
  • It is often treatable with small iodine doses or radioactive iodine treatment.

Treating thyroid problems has become more accessible and affordable these days. However, as diagnosing specific thyroid diseases is a sensitive task, you must always prefer a specialist for your thyroid treatment in Pune.

And if you’re looking for an experienced thyroid surgeon in Pune, then Deccan Clinic is where you can find the best one. Headed by the most adept and trusted laparoscopic surgeon in Pune, Deccan Clinic provides extensive and affordable treatment for both benign and cancerous thyroid problems. Visit the Deccan Clinic Website to learn more.


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